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FALKLANDS / FALKLAND ISLANDS

Maps and figures relating to these data can be found in the Picture Galleries. Any information used or copied from these reports MUST be referenced to the author.

LIST OF CONTENTS (Click on Title to go to relevant section)

1) GENERAL INFORMATION

2) HABITAT TYPES

3) BIRDS, SEALS & SEALIONS

4) WHALES & DOLPHINS

5) PLANT SPECIES


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GENERAL INFORMATION

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The Falkland Islands lie in the South West Atlantic approximately 450 kilometres north-east of Tierra del Fuego, between latitudes 51 and 53 degrees south, and longitudes 57 and 62 degrees west. The archipelago is made up of two main islands, East and West Falkland, and over seven hundred smaller islands and islets, comprising a land area of just over 12,000 square kilometres.

There are three principal mountain ranges with land over 600m: the Wickham Heights on East Falkland, and Mount Adam and the Hornby Mountains on West Falkland. These upland areas, along with most of West Falkland, are largely underlain by Palaeozoic rocks which tend to form rugged landscapes and coastlines, whilst the lowland areas of East Falkland, predominantly Lafonia and surrounding islands, are underlain by younger Mesozoic rocks which give a flatter landscape. These differing coastlines and terrain each provide features suitable for particular fauna and flora, resulting in associations between geology and species composition.

Most lowlands tend to have acidic peaty soils, which are generally of low fertility and which tend to support Dwarf Shrub Heath on the drier areas and Grassland on the wetter terrain. Where nutrient levels are higher, finer grasses and sedges are often supported as a short turf. Such Greens can be the result of natural nutrification, such as run-off from surrounding land or mineral deposits, or from animals such as penguins, geese and rabbits. Equally the high nutrient levels could be the result of agricultural practices, such as the intensive grazing of livestock, in which case such greens would more correctly be termed Pasture. The upper reaches of mountains and ridges generally have clay or stony soils, and these conditions combined with exposure favour the growth of cushion plant communities called Feldmark.

Tussac Grass (Parodiochloa flabellata) is restricted to coastal areas by its requirements for moist, salt-laden air. Its sensitivity to uncontrolled grazing means that today it exists in only about 20% of its former range, generally where protected from livestock. This sensitivity to grazing is also true for shrubs such as Fachine (Chiliotrichum diffusum) and Native Box (Hebe elliptica). The majority of the remaining tussac grass is found on offshore islands, with many smaller islands being completely covered. These islands often provide suitable habitat for breeding birds rarely found on the mainland, including small burrowing petrels and passerines such as Cobb`s Wrens and Tussock-birds. These species are susceptible to introduced predators such as rats and cats, and tend not to be found on the mainland or on offshore islands which do have rats.

The Falklands has a cool, temperate, oceanic climate, dominated by westerly winds. Average monthly temperatures range from around 9 degrees Celsius during the austral summer (January/February) to about 2 degrees Celsius during the austral winter (June/July). Because of prevailing westerly winds, areas on the leeward side of the mountain ranges tend to have higher annual rainfall than those on the westerly windward side. Port Stanley and Port Howard both have around 63cm per annum, which is greater than on westerly islands such as Westpoint, which averages only 43cm per annum. As a result of the differences in rainfall, geology and topography, the ground tends to remain drier in the west, with consequential differences being evident amongst the vegetation and associated fauna.

The Falkland Islands lie on the south westerly edge of the Patagonian continental shelf, where an abundance of marine species provide rich feeding for seabirds and marine mammals. The Falklands also lie to the north of the Antarctic Convergence, where cool surface waters to the south meet warmer surface waters from the north. This helps to moderate the climate, and prevents prolonged snow and ice cover. This division of ocean currents is reflected in the marine species found, with krill (Euphausia sp.), an important part of the food chain of the cooler southern waters, being replaced by Lobster Krill (Munida gregaria) in the warmer waters north of the convergence. The climatic differences brought about by the comparatively warmer waters also affect the flora and fauna found on land, and this is evident from the differing characteristics of the Falklands and South Georgia.

The author qualified as a Biological Surveyor in 1990, with specialist training in Bird Census and Habitat Classification techniques. Following employment with The National Trust, Gwynedd County Council and the Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Service, all regions where Biological Surveying was standardised, the author moved to the Falklands where no previous survey work had been done.

Whilst under the employment of Falklands Conservation, initial studies were carried out using standard UK survey techniques, in order to determine the basic habitat types applicable to the Falklands. Since then the author has conducted Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 Baseline Surveys throughout the Falkland Islands, with over 800 sq.km. of terrestrial habitat and over 500 km of coastline having so far been surveyed according to NCC/MNCR approved methodology (Hicock 1990: Nature Conservancy Council CSD Report No. 1072 / Marine Nature Conservation Review Occasional Report MNCR/OR/05). Survey data, combined with detailed studies of individual species, have been used to evaluate habitat types, and their associated flora and fauna. The general conclusions of this work are presented below.


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FALKLANDS HABITAT TYPES

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TERRESTRIAL HABITATS

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DENSE or MIXED TUSSAC GRASS (Parodiochloa flabellata) typically grows to a height of around 2 metres (although it can reach 3 or 4 metres), and features a tussock-like growth form around a fibrous pedestal. The pedestals accumulate slowly within a skirt of dead leaves, and many of the larger specimens may be 200 or more years of age. The pedestals provide nesting habitat for birds such as magellanic penguins, thin-billed prions, sooty shearwaters and small petrels, which burrow into or beneath it. The leaves, which can grow up to 2 metres in length, bush out from the living crown, and provide valuable nesting cover for passerines (eg. wrens, thrushes, siskins), birds of prey (eg. striated caracara, turkey vulture, short-eared owl), and coastal birds (eg. kelp geese, flightless steamer duck).

Tolerance or requirements for moist, salt-laden air allows tussac grass to become dominant around coastal regions, but more than about 300 metres from the coast, either lack of essential requirements, or competitive exclusion, prevents tussac growth. Therefore, with the exception of small islands of less than about 600 metres diameter, tussac tends to form a strip behind the coastal zone. This natural pattern has been disrupted over the last couple of hundred years by the introduction of livestock, and the sensitivity of tussac grass to over-grazing.

Tussac grass can be split into two categories, Dense Tussac where tussac is the dominant vegetation cover, and Mixed Tussac where tussac is present in another plant community, usually Oceanic Heath Formation (Grass or Dwarf Shrub).

Dense tussac grass modifies its own environment in a number of ways. The leaf litter from tussac grass is slow to decay, and forms a tussac peat, which can be deep, and high in nitrogen and phosphorus. The association of tussac grass with nesting seabirds and hauling-out sea mammals, helps to fertilise the ground with droppings produced from food taken at sea, and provides a valuable nutrient input to the tussac ecosystem. The dense leaf canopy which can form an almost impenetrable growth, and the retention of dead leaves around the pedestal, helps to insulate the tussac grass community against extremes of temperature, and allows water retention. This generates a sheltered micro-climate not only for nesting birds, but also for invertebrates, which in turn provide food for birds, along with the tussac seed. The closed canopy provides a hostile environment for most higher plant species, leaving almost a monoculture of tussac with just a few lower plant species and lichens capable of growing in the poor light available. Amongst the higher plant species which do seem adapted to surviving in tussac grass, are sword grass (Carex trifida), wild celery (Apium graveolens) and chickweed (Stellaria media).

GRASS HEATH is dominated by rough grasses, usually whitegrass (Cortaderia pilosa), and covers the largest areas of the Falklands mainland. The name whitegrass reflects the fact that the growing point of the leaf is generally beneath a longer dead leaf mass, giving the landscape a light buff appearance. On fairly well drained sites it can adopt a tussock growth form, and is often associated with pigvine (Gunnera magellanica), lawn lobelia (Pratia repens) and chickweeds (Cerastium sp.). On poorly drained plains, such as much of Lafonia, it takes on a more lax, less tufted form, and tends to be associated with rushes, sedges, astelia (Astelia pumila) and oreob (Oreobolus obtusangulus). Grass heath supports many flowering plants, invertebrates and a few birds.

DWARF SHRUB HEATH is dominated by low growing shrubs, particularly diddle-dee (Empetrum rubrum), and tends to form on dry, well-drained areas, such as hard peat overlying rocky ridges. It tends to be associated with tall fern (Blechnum magellanicum), small fern (Blechnum penna-marina), mountain berry (Pernettya pumila), teaberry (Myrteola nummularia) and christmas bush (Baccharis magellanica). Dwarf shrub heath also provides shelter for invertebrates, some smaller birds, and flowering plants such as pale maiden (Sisyrinchium jubatum), scurvy grass (Oxalis enneaphylla), vanilla daisy (Leuceria suaveolens), almond flower (Luzuriaga marginata), violet (Viola maculata) and dog orchid (Codonorchis lessonii).

FELDMARK FORMATION is dominated by cushion plants, such as balsam bog (Bolax gummifera) and cushion plant (Azorella sp.), often in association with tall fern (Blechnum magellanicum), small fern (B. penna-marina), dwarf shrubs and coarse grasses. It tends to be found on higher hills and exposed ridges, where the combination of thin shaley soils and exposure to wind exclude faster growing species which lack adaptations to cope with desiccation and nutrient deficiency. Although feldmark does provide habitat for certain invertebrates and birds, the harsh conditions and more open nature of this habitat means it generally lacks the diversity of species found in other habitats such as tussac grass or oceanic heath.

ROCKY OUTCROP The thin soils and underlying geology result in many areas of exposed rock, either as exposed bedrock, or surface stones such as stone runs. Such areas provide nesting sites for certain birds such as ground tyrants, red-backed buzzards, crested caracaras and peregrine falcons, and can be colonised by lichens and specialist plants, such as snakeplant (Nassauvia serpens).

FEN is an area surrounding ponds, lakes or streams which features tall freshwater vegetation such as willow herb (Epilobium ciliatum) and rushes (eg. Scirpus californicus and Eleocharis melanostachys). Associated plants include marigold (Caltha sagittata), water-milfoil (Myriophyllum elatinoides), starwort (Callitriche antarctica) and blinks (Montia fontana). Fen is not particularly abundant in the Falklands, although where it does occur it is important as cover for nesting waterfowl, smaller passerines and invertebrates.

BOG is a variable habitat type, usually comprising wet swampy areas of short rushes or astelia (Astelia pumila), often with low cushions of oreob (Oreobolus obtusangulus) or patches of sphagnum. Associated plants include sundew (Drosera uniflora), lawn lobelia (Pratia repens), lilaeopsis (Lilaeopsis macloviana), blinks (Montia fontana), buttercup (Ranunculus trullifolius) and pimpernel (Anagallis alternifolia).

FACHINE or BOX There are no native trees, and only two native species which grow as bushes: FACHINE (Chiliotrichum diffusum) and BOX (Hebe elliptica). Both species are sensitive to grazing by livestock, and as such have declined significantly since human settlement, now being virtually absent from much of East and West Falkland. As well as supporting a variety of invertebrates, such bush formations provide shelter and nesting habitat for several passerines, such as thrushes and siskins.

SAND DUNES are areas of loose or vegetated sand which form behind the littoral zone, and such habitat is therefore generally restricted to coastal areas. The consolidating vegetation can be sand grass (Ammophila arenaria), an introduced species adapted to stabilising highly mobile sand, or other drought-tolerant species more typical of grass and dwarf shrub heath. Such areas can provide cover for nesting waders and other shorebirds, and may well hold specialist invertebrates, although little work has been conducted to determine this.

ERODED AREAS Such areas feature exposed soil, as opposed to bedrock, and can be caused by overgrazing, burning and physical disturbance. If the underlying soil is peaty, it can be prone to drying out and blowing away, which can lead to a hollow that may later be filled with water to create a temporary pond. Such ponds are often devoid of higher lifeforms. Erosion is an increasing problem, especially on coastal areas, and is usually, although not always, a result of human activities.

SETTLEMENTS often provide niches for various species of plants and animals, some of which are dependent on human habitation (eg. House Sparrow). Other species such as the black-chinned siskin and thrush, make use of habitats provided by settlements in the form of planted shrubs and outbuildings. Rats and mice, although able to survive away from settlements, favour close proximity with man. Settlements also provide habitat for plant species which can grow nowhere else. Trees and introduced shrubs are often planted, along with numerous other garden plants, but settlements can also provide refuge for native species which are intolerant of grazing.

PASTURE is characterised by a short turf of fine grasses, as opposed to the coarse grasses of grass heath. These fine grasses provide a higher nutritional value for grazing, but require a more fertile soil to out-compete the coarse grasses which are adapted to thriving in poor soils. In the case of pasture, these nutrients are provided by the droppings of livestock, which tend to be kept at fairly high densities in such areas. Several plant species with a tolerance of being grazed at ground level, such as the daisy (Bellis perennis) and clovers (Trifolium sp.) are associated with pasture, and the nitrogen fixing properties of the clover will help maintain the nutrifying process. In general pasture is too short to provide shelter or nesting habitat for birds, and seems only to be of any real benefit to upland geese and lagomorphs which graze on the nutritional grass species.

GREENS also consist of a short turf of fine grasses, however the nutrient input does not come from livestock but from a variety of natural processes. Coastal greens are often associated with seabird colonies, where nutrients from food caught at sea are deposited on land as guano, providing a major nutrient input to the ecosystem. Similar associations may also result from the presence of high concentrations of geese or lagomorphs. Alternatively nutrient input may result from a topography which has a surrounding catchment area, or from underlying soil or rock with a high mineral content. Whatever the process involved, such areas tend to attract grazing geese, which help maintain the green and keep it short. The associated flora very much depends on the nature of the green, but will predominantly be plants which are tolerant of being grazed at ground level, such as those found in pasture.

TREES / GORSE There are no trees or gorse native to the Falklands, although European Gorse (and some tree species) have been planted at many settlements over the last century as a living stock-proof fence, and for amenity and windbreaks. Although they are introduced species, they can provide roosting and nesting sites for some native species.

TEMPORARY or PERMANENT PONDS & STREAMS The nature of ponds and streams varies enormously depending on edaphic factors, topography, geology, surrounding vegetation, weather patterns and farming practices. TEMPORARY ponds are subject to drying out periodically, and can be merely muddy hollows, virtually devoid of major lifeforms. PERMANENT ponds can provide a greater stability for aquatic life, and some can be rich in flora and fauna. Streams, and ponds connected to streams, may contain minnows (Galaxias sp.) and sometimes the much rarer zebra trout (Aplochiton zebra). Vegetation is likely to include water-milfoil (Myriophyllum elatinoides), and around the margins there may be species such as marigold (Caltha sagittata), starwort (Callitriche antarctica), blinks (Montia fontana), spike rush (Eleocharis melanostachys) and native rush (Juncus scheuzerioides). Ducks, geese and grebes are also likely to be found on the more biologically diverse ponds. Invertebrates have not been examined in any detail, but it is likely that certain species will have particular associations with ponds and streams.

LITTORAL HABITAT TYPES

For the purposes of survey work, the littoral habitat types are divided into the following basic categories.

a) Physical features: Each section of shoreline can be categorised according to the ONE definition which best describes its mean high water mark features.

BOULDER SHORE consisting of stones with an average diameter of more than 300mm. Boulders provide cover for marine invertebrates avoiding desiccation at low tide, and as such attract feeding birds such as black oystercatchers and black-crowned night herons. Such coastlines are generally subjected to high energy waves, and do not offer safe nesting sites for birds, or suitable habitat for plants, except at the very upper reaches of the shore.

STONY SHORE consisting of stones with an average diameter of between 2mm and 300mm. The shifting nature of beach stones provides a poor substrate for plants to gain a foothold, and little cover for fauna. Birds such as pied oystercatchers, gulls and terns may nest on the upper reaches of shingle beaches, but most other species prefer sites which offer more seclusion. Elephant seals tend to choose shingle or sandy beaches for breeding.

SANDY SHORE consisting of visible grains with an average diameter of less than 2mm. Sandy shores can provide important feeding and nesting areas for breeding waders such as pied oystercatchers and two-banded plovers, and feeding grounds for visiting white-rumped sandpipers. Sandy shores are also favoured by Gentoo and King penguins coming ashore to breeding colonies further inland, as well as by gulls and terns which may nest above the tide line. Plants such as sea cabbage (Senecio candicans), thrift (Armeria macloviana) and sand grass (Ammophila arenaria) are also often associated with the upper reaches of sandy shores, which are frequently backed by a dune system forming the transition into the terrestrial zone.

MUDDY SHORE consisting of soft sediment with grains too small to be visible with the naked eye. Such sediments often provide a rich feeding area for waders such as white-rumped sandpipers, because of the invertebrates living in the mud. Low-energy, estuarine environments are usually covered during spring tides, precluding nesting or the establishment of terrestrial vegetation.

ROCKY SHORE of exposed bedrock. The bedrock can provide secure attachment for marine invertebrates such as mussels and limpets, and for marine algaes which in turn support other marine creatures. Rockpools also tend to be numerous at low tide, trapping small fish and marine creatures. This wealth of marine creatures provides rich feeding for birds such as black oystercatchers, black-crowned night herons and gulls. The high energy waves prevent nesting, or the establishment of terrestrial plants, except in the upper reaches where species such as native crassula (Crassula moschata) may be found. Rocky shores are the preferred breeding sites of fur seal and sea lion.

CLIFF shoreline with steep slopes that exceed 8m in height. The steep slopes and deeper water generally make cliffs unsuitable for most birds as feeding or breeding areas. Cliffs do however provide suitable nesting sites for rock shags, rockhopper penguins, albatross and peregrine falcons which seek out such sites. Birds such as black oystercatchers, kelp geese and flightless steamer ducks can often be seen feeding along the waters edge below the cliffs.

b) Biological features: In addition to the physical nature of the shoreline, any number of the following biological features may also be present. Despite the fact that these are all essentially sub-littoral habitats, they are included because of their importance as food resources for shorebirds.

GREEN ALGAE Shoreline where green algae such as sea lettuce (Ulva sp.) is found. Sea lettuce tends to grow around the mean tide level, but also gets washed further up shore, and provides a valuable food resource for birds such as kelp geese.

KELP BEDS Shoreline where kelps, such as giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) and tree kelp (Lessonia sp.) can be seen growing in the waters above the lower shore zone. Such marine habitats are important for many marine lifeforms.

MUSSEL BEDS Shoreline where large numbers of mussels are present. Mussels can be an important food resource for oystercatchers and gulls, and in the late larval stage for marine ducks.


WHALES & DOLPHINS

Several species of whale and dolphin are present in Falklands waters, but these have not been studied in detail. Species which have been recorded in Falklands waters are listed below in approximate order of abundance, starting with the most commonly sighted species:

Commerson's Dolphin (Cephalorhynchus commersonii)
Peale's Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus australis)
Long-finned Pilot Whale (Globicephala melas)
Orca (Orcinus orca)
Spectacled Porpoise (Phocoena dioptrica)
Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus)
Dusky Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus)
Southern Right Whale Dolphin (Lissodelphis peronii)
Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)
Arnoux's Beaked Whale (Berardius arnuxii)
Southern Bottlenose Whale (Hyperoodon planifrons)
Hourglass Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus cruciger)
Gray's Beaked Whale (Mesoplodon grayi)
Hector's Beaked Whale (Mesoplodon hectori)
Strap-toothed Beaked Whale (Mesoplodon layardii)
Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
Cuvier's Beaked Whale (Ziphius cavirostris)
Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus)
Sei Whale (Baleanoptera borealis)
Pygmy Right Whale (Caperea marginata)
Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis)
Humpback Whale (Megaptera novae-angliae)
Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)


PLANT SPECIES

278 species of flowering plant have so far been recorded in the Falkland Islands. These species are listed below:

Abrotanella emarginata
Acaena lucida
Acaena magellanica
Acaena microcephala
Acaena ovalifolia
Acaena pumila
Achillea millefolium
Achillea tomentosa
Adiantum chilense
Agoseris coronopifolium
Agropyron magellanicum
Agropyron repens
Agrostemma githago
Agrostis canina
Agrostis magellanica
Agrostis stolonifera
Agrostis tenuis
Aira caryophyllea
Aira praecox
Alopecurus antarcticus
Alopecurus pratensis
Ammophila arenaria
Anagallis alternifolia
Anthemis arvensis
Anthemis cotula
Anthoxanthum odoratum
Apium graveolens
Arachnitis uniflora
Armeria macloviana
Arrhenatherum elatius
Asplenium dareoides
Astelia pumila
Aster vahlii
Avena fatua
Avena sativa
Azorella caespitosa
Azorella filamentosa
Azorella lycopodioides
Azorella selago
Baccharis magellanica
Bellis perennis
Blechnum chilense
Blechnum magellanicum
Blechnum penna-marina
Bolax gummifera
Botrychium dusenii
Bromus condensatus
Bromus mollis
Calandrinia feltonii
Calceolaria biflora
Calceolaria fothergillii
Callitriche antarctica
Calluna vulgaris
Caltha appendiculata
Caltha sagittata
Capsella bursa-pastoris
Cardamine glacialis
Carex acaulis
Carex aematorryncha
Carex banksii
Carex caduca
Carex curta
Carex decidua
Carex flacca
Carex fuscula
Carex macloviana
Carex magellanica
Carex microglochin
Carex trifida
Carex vallis-pulchrae
Centaurea cyanus
Cerastium arvense
Cerastium fontanum
Ceratochloa unioloides
Chenopodium macrospermum
Chevreulia lycopodioides
Chiliotrichum diffusum
Chloraea gaudichaudii
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum
Cirsium arvense
Cochlearia officinalis
Codonorchis lessonii
Colobanthus quitensis
Colobanthus subulatus
Coronopus didymus
Cortaderia pilosa
Cotula scariosa
Crassula moschata
Cynosurus cristatus
Cynosurus echinatus
Cystopteris fragilis
Dactylis glomerata
Deschampsia antarctica
Deschampsia flexuosa
Deschampsia parvula
Draba funiculosa
Draba magellanica
Drapetes muscosus
Drosera uniflora
Dryopteris dilatata
Dryopteris filix-mas
Elatine triandra
Eleocharis albibracteata
Eleocharis melanostachys
Elymus arenarius
Empetrum rubrum
Epilobium cunninghamii
Erigeron incertus
Erodium cicutarium
Erysimum cheiranthoides
Euphorbia peplus
Euphrasia antarctica
Festuca erecta
Festuca magellanica
Festuca pratensis
Festuca rubra
Gaimardia australis
Galium antarcticum
Galium saxatile
Gaultheria antarctica
Gavilea australis
Gavilea littoralis
Gentianella magellanica
Geranium molle
Geranium robertianum
Gleichenia cryptocarpa
Gnaphalium affine
Gnaphalium americanum
Gnaphalium antarcticum
Gnaphalium luteoalbum
Gnaphalium spicatum
Grammitis kerguelensis
Gunnera magellanica
Hamadryas argentea
Hebe elliptica
Hieracium antarcticum
Hieracium aurantiacum
Hieracium patagonicum
Hierochloe redolens
Holcus lanatus
Hordeum comosum
Hordeum jubatum
Huperzia selago
Hydrocotyle chamaemorus
Hymenophyllum falklandicum
Hymenophyllum tortuosum
Hypochoeris arenaria
Hypochoeris radicata
Isolepis cernua
Juncus bufonius
Juncus effusus
Juncus scheuchzerioides
Koeleria bergii
Lagenophora nudicaulis
Lamium amplexicaule
Lamium hybridum
Lamium purpureum
Leontodon hispidus
Leuceria suaveolens
Lilaeopsis macloviana
Limosella australis
Littorella australis
Lolium multiflorum
Lolium perenne
Luzula alopecurus
Luzula campestris
Luzuriaga marginata
Lycopodium confertum
Lycopodium magellanicum
Marsippospermum grandiflorum
Medicago arabica
Medicago lupulina
Medicago sativa
Mentha x piperita
Mercurialis annua
Montia fontana
Montia perfoliata
Myosotis arvensis
Myosotis discolor
Myriophyllum elatinoides
Myrteola nummularia
Nanodea muscosa
Nassauvia gaudichaudii
Nassauvia serpens
Nastanthus falklandicus
Nertera depressa
Ophioglossum crotalophoroides
Oreobolus obtusangulus
Oreomyrrhis hookeri
Oxalis enneaphylla
Parodiochloa flabellata
Perezia recurvata
Pernettya pumila
Phlebolobium macloviana
Phleum pratense
Phyllitis scolopendrium
Plantago barbata
Plantago lanceolata
Plantago maritima
Poa alopecurus
Poa annua
Poa pratensis
Poa robusta
Poa trivialis
Polygonum maritimum
Polystichum mohrioides
Potamogeton linguatus
Pratia repens
Primula magellanica
Puccinellia glaucescens
Puccinellia pusilla
Racomitrium orthotricaceum
Ranunculus acaulis
Ranunculus biternatus
Ranunculus hydrophilus
Ranunculus maclovianus
Ranunculus pseudotrullifolius
Ranunculus repens
Ranunculus sericocephalus
Ranunculus trullifolius
Raphanus sativus
Ribes nigrum
Rostkovia magellanica
Rubus geoides
Rumex acetosella
Rumex angiocarpus
Rumex crispus
Rumex obtusifolius
Rumohra adiantiformis
Sagina procumbens
Saxifraga magellanica
Schizaea fistulosa
Schizeilema ranunculus
Schoenoplectus riparius
Scutellaria nummulariifolia
Sedum acre
Senecio candidans
Senecio littoralis
Senecio vaginatus
Senecio vulgaris
Serpyllopsis caespitosa
Silene dioica
Silybum marianum
Sinapis alba
Sisymbrium officinale
Sisyrinchium chilense
Sisyrinchium jubatum
Sonchus asper
Sonchus oleraceus
Spergula arvensis
Spergularia media
Stellaria debilis
Stellaria media
Suaeda argentinensis
Taraxacum magellanicum
Taraxacum officinale
Tetroncium magellanicum
Trifolium aureum
Trifolium campestre
Trifolium dubium
Trifolium fragiferum
Trifolium hybridum
Trifolium pratense
Trifolium repens
Trisetum spicatum
Ulex europaea
Uncinia brevicaulis
Urtica dioica
Urtica urens
Valeriana sedifolia
Valerianella locusta
Veronica serpyllifolia
Vicia cracca
Viola arvensis
Viola maculata
Viola magellanica
Viola tridentata
Vulpia bromoides
Web page created by Mike Bingham